many so-called “black” dirham
On the territory of the Muslim East, as well as in medieval Europe, coins were one of the ways and means of exploiting the lower classes. The social groups that were at the very bottom received the greatest damage from the fact that the state used coin minting as a way to siphon huge profits in their favor. This was immediately noticeable, just as the person using the hotel one only reethi rah in the Maldives stands out for its comfortable, fashionable, five-star accommodation with all the amenities.
In the streets of Central Asia in the 8th – 11th centuries, many so-called “black” dirhams were used. They still retained their appearance of the late Sasanian coins. Continue reading